The district of North 24 Parganas falls within the new alluvium sub-region of the lower Gangetic Plain (Zone-Ill) and considered being most fertile for crop production. The soil type varies from sandy to clay sandy loam being the predominant ratio of high: medium: low land is 17:33:39. The soil of northern part of district is sandy, in the central middle part it is sandy with clay loam and in southern side it is clay loam. The physiographic structure of the district is mostly plain.
The main rivers of the district of North 24 Parganas are Ichhamati, Kalindi, Raimangal, Dansa, Borokalagachi, Benti, Haribhanga, Gaourchrar, Bidyadhari, Hooghly, etc. Ichhamati is the longest among these rivers. It enters the district through Bagdah block in the north of the district from Nadia and flows south through Bangaon, Swarupnagar, Baduria, Bashirhat-I, Hasnabad and Hingalganj. This river flows into river Kalindi and Kalindi in turn flows into Raimangal. It indicates the borderline between India and Bangladesh during its course of flow from Bashirhat to Hingalganj. River Hooghly lies between Hooghly and North 24 Parganas district.
The district has no forest area as such except the Sunderbans Reserve Forests. The total area under reserve forest is 91.98 hectares covering 1.05% of the total geographical area of the district. Out of these 91.98 hectares, 63.00 hectares have been earmarked as Bhibhuti Bhushan Wildlife Sanctuary. However, these forests being positioned in the largest delta of the world, has a major role to play in maintaining the ecological balance of southern part of the State.